What Is A Supercomputer And Fastest Supercomputer In World

What is a supercomputer & fastest supercomputer in world ? We all know about computer but do you know about supercomputer? This is the super version of Computer And it is also true that a supercomputer is called a device that performs better and faster processing of all existing computers. If we talk about earlier times, then vacuum tubes and transistors were used in computers and computers used to come in large rooms. But since the time of Integrated Circuit or microchips came, now the size of computers has reduced to a great extent.

But ICs are used in a supercomputer, microchips are used in large numbers so that there is no difference in their size.

But their processing speed is thousands of times faster than all other normal computers. Here today in this article, we will know about what it is a supercomputer, how it works and what are its advantages compared to the rest of the traditional computer. So let’s start without delay and get complete information about what is a supercomputer and fastest supercomputer in world.

What is a Supercomputer & Fastest Supercomputer in World

What Is A Supercomputer And Fastest Supercomputer In World
What Is A Supercomputer And Fastest Supercomputer In World

A supercomputer is a computer that currently operates at or near the maximum operating speed of a computer. Dition Theoretically, supercomputers have been used for scientific and engineering applications that can handle very large databases or perform large amounts of calculations {or both}.

So instead of doing one thing at a time, it does multiple works at one time. A supercomputer is a computer that currently operates at the highest administration rate.

Where is a supercomputer used?

Theoretically, supercomputers are primarily used to perform science and engineering applications so that they can manage large databases and perform large amounts of computing operations. In terms of performance, it works thousands of times faster and with greater precision than a typical computer.

The performance of the supercomputer is measured in FLOPS, which means one floating-point operation per second. Therefore, the more FLPOS the computer performs, the stronger it will be.

What is Serial and Parallel Processing?

Let us know what is the difference between Serial and Parallel Processing? In an ordinary computer, only one work is done at a time, meaning another work is processed only after the completion of one work, such processing is called serial processing. What is the Ethernet

For example, a man is sitting in the grocery checkout of a retail mall and after picking up whatever goods come in the conveyor belt, he scans the scanner and passes it in the customer’s bag, doing the work in a distinct series of operations. So it is called series processing. Here, no matter how soon you place things in the conveyor belt or fill things in your bag after the scan, the speed of this process depends on the scanning speed or processing of that operator, and which is always one item at a time. Happens in The best example of this is the turning machine.

At the same time, a typical modern supercomputer works at a very high speed for which it splits the problem into small pieces and works in one piece at a time. Therefore this process is called parallel processing.

If at the same grocery checkout, a lot of friends divide the items among themselves and checkout together in different counters and later collect all the things in one place, then it will work very soon and will not take much time. Since the work was divided here, it did not take much time for processing. That’s why Parallel Processing is much faster than serial processing.

The largest and powerful supercomputers use parallel processing. With this, they can do any process in a fast and short time. When it comes to big and complex tasks like weather forecasting (weather forecasting), gene synthesis, mathematical modeling, etc. then we need computing power in the right way. In this case, parallel processing to Supercomputer is more useful. Generally speaking, there are mainly two parallel processing approaches Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) and Massively parallel processing (MPP).

What are Clusters?

If you want, you can create a supercomputer for which you have to put many processors in a giant box and instruct them to solve complex problems for which they can use parallel processing.

Or there is another way in which you have to buy a lot of off-the-shelf PCs and keep them in the same room, interconnecting them with each other with the help of a fast local area network ( LAN ). So that they will work broadly the same way. This type of supercomputer is called Cluster. Google uses these cluster supercomputer for web searches of its users in its data centers.

What is the Grid?

Grid is also a supercomputer which is very similar to a cluster (which is a group of separate computers), but it contains computers in different places with each other via the Internet (or another computer network). are connected. This type of computing is also called distributed computing, in which the power of the computer is spread across multiple locations in exchange for a single place (centralized computing).

For example, the CERN Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, in which the data from the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particle accelerator is assembled in one place, uses a grid supercomputer.

In Grids Supercomputer there are fewer chances of failure, as all computers are connected to each other, so they can overcome problems caused by parallel processing, where break up is common.

Which Operating System Does Supercomputers Use?

You may be surprised to know that ordinary operating systems are used to run supercomputers that we run on our PCs, but we know that more modern supercomputer actuals include off-the-shelf computers and workstations. Are clusters of.

Until a few years ago, Unix was used according to the operating system, while Linux is still used in exchange for it. Which is open-source.

How powerful are supercomputers?

If we talk about normal computers, then MIPS (million instructions per second) is used to measure their computing speed.

But the way to rate supercomputers is slightly different. Since most scientific calculations are done in this, they are measured by floating-point operations per second (FLOPS).

When and who Made Fastest Supercomputer in World

Fastest Supercomputer In World
What Is A Supercomputer And Fastest Supercomputer In World

If you study the history of computers, then you will find that not one individual has contributed to this, but many people have given their contribution from time to time. We went to see such amazing machines somewhere. But when it comes to Supercomputer, then a big credit goes to Seymour Cray (1925–1996). Because his contribution is highest in Supercomputer. You can also call them the father of a supercomputer.

1946: John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert designed ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), University of Pennsylvania. It was the first general-purpose, electronic computer, it was about 25m (80 feet) long and about 30 tons its weight. It was created to operate military-scientific problems and was the first scientific supercomputer.

1953: IBM developed the first general-purpose mainframe computer, named IBM 701 (also known as Defense Calculator), and sold about 20 machines to different government and military agencies. The 701 was the first off-the-shelf supercomputer. Gene Amdahl, then an engineer at IBM, later redesigned it and named the upgraded version IBM 704, a machine that had a computing speed of around 5 KFLOPS (5000 FLOPS).

1956: IBM then developed the Stretch supercomputer for Los Alamos National Laboratory. It has been fastest supercomputer in world for nearly 10 years.

1972: Cray left Control Data and founded its own Cray Research and built high-end computers — the first true supercomputer. Their main idea was how to reduce the connections within the machine so that the speed of the machines can be increased. Earlier Cray computers were often C-shaped so that they could be kept separate from others.

1979: Cray again developed a faster model than before, which had eight-processor, 1.9 GFLOP Cray-2. In this, wire connections were reduced from 120 cm to 41 cm (16 inches).

1983: Thinking Machines Corporation again manufactured massively parallel Connection Machine, in which around 64,000 parallel processors were used.

1989: Seymour Cray then founded a new company, Cray Computer, where they developed Cray-3 and Cray-4.

1990: Due to a cut in defense spending and the evolving of powerful RISC workstations, by companies such as Silicon Graphics, it was posing a serious threat to supercomputer makers.

1993: It is was made fastest supercomputer in world using 166 vector processors.

L994: Thinking Machines made case for Bankruptcy Protection File did.

1995: Cray Computer also started sinking due to financial difficulties, so they filed a case of bankruptcy protection. Simultaneously, Seymour Cray died in a road accident on October 5, 1996.

1996: Cray Research (Cray’s original company) was purchased by Silicon Graphics.

1997: IBM’s Deep Blue supercomputer defeated Gary Kasparov in a chess game.

2008: Jaguar supercomputer created by Cray Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory became the world’s first petaflop scientific supercomputer which was later defeated by the machines of Japan and China.

2011–2013: Jaguar was extensively (and expensively) upgraded, and renamed Titan, and later became the world’s fastest supercomputer, later downgraded by the Chinese machine Tianhe-2.

2014: Mont-Blanc, a European consortium who announced that they are building an exaflop (1018 FLOP) supercomputer from energy-efficient smartphone and tablet processors.

2017: Chinese scientists announced that they are making a prototype of an exaflop supercomputer, which is based on Tianhe-2.

2018: China is at the forefront of the fastest supercomputers race, made by them, Sunway TaihuLight is the fastest running supercomputer in the whole world.

Top 5 Fastest Supercomputer in World 2020

There is a lot of competition in all countries about computing power, which can be at the forefront, but the top position is the same. Peak performance in supercomputing always changes. Even in the definition of supercomputer, it is written that it is a machine “which always works at its highest operational rate.”

Due to competition, it makes supercomputing more interesting, so that scientists and engineers always continue their research on better computational speed. So let’s know the top 5 supercomputers in the world are from cones.

1. Summit

At the top of the top 500 supercomputer computer speed charts at the top of the top five hundred supercomputers, the summit is improving its performance right now. It was built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory of the United States Department of Energy with 2,282,544 IBM Power 9 cores and 2,090,880 Nvidia Volta GV100 cores.

2. Sierra

Sierra, made by IBM, is second on the top list at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. It has 1,572,480 cores fueled by the IBM Power9 processor and Nvidia Volta GV100 quickening agent, adding 1,382,400 extra centers to the blend. Its performance has remained unchanged at 94.6 petaflops for six months.

3. Sunway Taihu Light

Sunway Taihu Light spent two years at No. 1, but was No. 2 in June and now No. 3 in China. Its energy efficiency is 6,051 gigaflops/watt.

4. Tianhe-2A (Milky Way 2A)

Developed by the National University of Defense Technology of China and implemented in the National Supercomputer Computer in Guangzhou, China, the system maintains its number 5 ranking in core performance for core performance of Intel Xeon E5-2692v2 and matrix processors. 2000. 61.4 petaflops (as before), and its energy efficiency is 3,325 gigaflops per watt. Difference Between SSD and HDD

5. Frontera

The only new supercomputer in the top ten in Frontera, jumping to number five. It is a Dell C6420 system, powered by an Intel Zion Platinum 8280 processor, and installed at the Texas Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Its leading performance is 23.5 petaflops in HPL.

Name of Supercomputer of India

Do you know when India’s first supercomputer Param 8000 was launched? It was launched in India in 1991. Our country also has some supercomputers in India. Let’s know the name of India’s supercomputer.

  • Sahasrat (Cray XC40)
  • Aaditya (IBM / Lenovo System)
  • TIFR Colour Boson
  • IIT Delhi HPC
  • Param Yuva 2

Conclusion

I have given you complete information about what is a supercomputer and fastest supercomputer in world and I hope you guys have understood about what is a supercomputer & fastest supercomputer in world.

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